April M. Short
Contributing Editor, Senior Writer
Digital & Creative Lead
Social Media Manager
Justin Hampton is an erstwhile journalist and digital content creator focused on the nexus of culture and consciousness. Over the course of a quarter-century, he has written on cannabis, music and psychedelics for High Times, the Los Angeles Times, Alternative Press, and Leafly. He is currently the Digital Content Manager of the herbal wellness brand Medicine Box.
Georgia Perry is a freelance writer and photographer. She has a bachelor's in journalism from Indiana University. Formerly, she was a staff writer at Santa Cruz Weekly. Her work has also appeared in The Atlantic, Vice, and Narratively, among other places. Read more of her work on on her website or connect with her on Twitter @georguhperry.
KEVIN BALKTICK, founder and director of Horizons Media, Inc., a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit educational charity that produces Horizons: Perspectives on Psychedelics, is a New York-based producer, creative director, and cultural entrepreneur focused on live experiences and hospitality. Over the last fifteen years, his oeuvre has included parties, festivals, concerts, conferences, exhibitions, and experiences that defy description, in locations as varied as churches, warehouses, fortresses, libraries, mansions, prisons, universities, city streets, and the great outdoors. His work has been featured in The New York Times, National Public Radio, The New Yorker, Vogue, WWD, Vice, Hospitality Design, Wired, NHT (Japan), The Guardian (UK), Ha’aretz (Israel), and other publications. Image: @soulfocus_media
Aaron Genuth is an activist, consumer advocate and journalist operating in the cannabis and psychedelic spaces for over two decades. He has written and produced content for publications including High Times and Civilized, and worked as editor, writer and online content manager for NUGL Magazine. Aaron is also the founder of Darkhei Rephua (Paths of Healing), a religious entheogenic nonprofit for which he serves as president. He is a fan of LSD and the New York Mets.
Mike Margolies is a psychedelic community catalyst and conversation creator. Mike is the Founder of Psychedelic Seminars (psychsems.com), an educational conversation series deepening awareness of the benefits, risks, and complexities of psychedelics. He has also started and contributed to a number of other projects as an event and media producer, connector, and advisor. Mike founded the Baltimore Psychedelic Society and has sparked and mentored similar groups around the world from San Francisco to DC to Portugal.
Michael Garfield is a philosopher and artist whose work anchors our current crises and imagined futures in deep time and Big History. Obsessed with major evolutionary transitions (like the one we're in right now), Michael splits his time between mythopoiesis and musical performance, hosting Future Fossils Podcast, and communicating complex systems science for the Santa Fe Institute. Follow him on Twitter: @michaelgarfield
Henry Holtzman is an entrepreneur and innovation leader at the intersection of business, technology and design. As an executive for Samsung, he led new product innovation projects that touched on TV, Smart Home, Home Appliance and mobile products. Prior to Samsung, Holtzman was part of the MIT Media Lab's leadership team where he also lectured and supervised research. Currently, Holtzman runs Secretparty.io, an event invitation and ticketing platform that supports and builds tight-knit communities through its referral invitation system. An enthusiastic Burner, Holtzman is also the mayor of a Burning Man Village, theme camp organizer, art car builder, and adores the Black Rock Desert.
Jill Ettinger is a Los Angeles-based writer and editor immersed in digital publishing and storytelling with a focus on the global food system and how it intersects with our cultural traditions, ethics, health, and politics. Her work has been featured in The Huffington Post, MTV, and the Village Voice.
Jasmine Virdi is a freelance writer, editor, and proofreader. Since 2018, she has been working as a writer, editor, and social media coordinator for the fiercely independent publishing company Synergetic Press, where her passions for ecology, ethnobotany and psychoactive substances converge. She also serves as a writer for Psychedelics Today, a podcast and online education platform that is dedicated to exploring the healing aspects of non-ordinary states of consciousness and discussing scientific research surrounding psychedelics. Jasmine’s goal as an advocate for psychoactive substances is to raise awareness of the socio-historical context in which these substances emerged in order to help integrate them into our modern-day lives in a safe, grounded and meaningful way.
Tania Abdul is developing her Ayurvedic herbal medicine business, works as an event producer, and volunteers as an artist, an activist, and a citizen scientist collecting data underwater on California’s rocky reef ecosystem.
Bett Williams is the author of Girl Walking Backwards(St.Martin’s Press) and The Wrestling Party(Alyson Press.) Her forthcoming book, The Wild Kindness; A Psilocybin Odyssey(Dottir Press, Sept. 2020,) is available for pre-order. She was a featured speaker at Horizons Perspectives on Psychedelics Conference. In 2018, she and her partner Beth Hill, received together the Kindle Project Maker’s Muse Award. She lives in Santa Fe, NM.
A creative writer and journalist, Ali McGhee is an Editor with AVLtoday. She has a PhD in English from the University of Rochester. Her creative work has been published in Dark Mountain and Slippery Elm Literary Journal, and her academic work and journalism have been published in Romantic Circles, The Edgar Allan Poe Review, Atlantic Studies, and Scalawag. She's currently completing her novel, an apocalyptic horror/SF work about people turning into trees, and is working on a multimedia visual art and text project, Oso and Otter, with visual artist Justin Noah Wells. She is a core faculty member at The Enneagram School of Awakening in Asheville, NC. Social media handles: @hoodooalphabet (Instagram and Twitter) @ali.mcghee (Facebook)
Colleen Newvine has been a reporter and editor at daily, weekly and monthly publications, including the Ann Arbor News and Insider Business Journal. She covered health sciences at the University of Michigan News Service for five years. She is a freelance writer in addition to being a marketing consultant and coach. She earned her bachelor's degree in journalism from Central Michigan University, and she was inducted into the CMU Journalism Hall of Fame in 2017. She received her MBA from the University of Michigan Business School in 2005. She lives in Brooklyn, New York, with her husband, John Tebeau.
Leia Friedman, M.S. loves to connect the dots as a teacher, writer, and permaculturist. Her work focuses on phenomena related to the human experience of consciousness through the lens of social and environmental justice. She is the host of “The Psychedologist: Consciousness Positive Radio,” co-founder of Boston Entheogenic Network, an integration facilitator, a trainee in restorative and transformative approaches to conflict, and a budding herbalist. Leia holds her permaculture design certificate from Starhawk’s Earth Activist Training, a program that emphasizes the importance of social permaculture and spirituality. Her long-range intention is to support a center that integrates regenerative land management with holistic and visionary healing modalities.
Itzhak Beery is an internationally recognized shamanic teacher, healer, speaker, community activist, and author of three Amazon bestseller books. Born in an Israeli Kibbutz, he had a fine art career and was the owner of an award-winning boutique Ad agency in New York City. A midlife crisis led to his transformation from a skeptical atheist, and business executive into a passionate believer, aligned with his life purpose. Since 1995, Itzhak bridges the spiritual and practical wisdom his indigenous and Western teachers entrusted in him. He was initiated into the "Circle of 24 Yachaks of Imbabura" by his Quechua teacher in Ecuador and by Amazonian Kanamari Pajè in Brazil. Itzhak is the founder of ShamanPortal.org, The Andes Summit, and co-founder of the New York Shamanic Circle, he is on major global spiritual centers faculties. Itzhak received the 'Ambassador for Peace Award' from The Universal Peace Federation and the UN.
Danny Nemu is a hypnotherapist, speaker, and independent researcher interested in what the Bible can tell us about the powers and peculiarities of the human mind. He is the author of Science Revealed and Neuro-Apocalypse, out on Psychedelic Press, and Getting High with the Most High: Entheogens in the Bible.
Nicholas Powers is the author of The Ground Below Zero: 9/11 to Burning Man, New Orleans to Darfur, Haiti to Occupy Wall Street, published by Upset Press. He is a poet and an associate professor of English at SUNY Old Westbury with writings in Truth-Out, HuffPost, Alternet and The Indypendent.
Veteran San Francisco journalist Don Lattin has been writing about psychedelics for newspapers and magazines since the 1970s. More recently, he is the author of Changing Our Minds — Psychedelic Sacraments and the New Psychotherapy (Synergetic Press, 2017), Distilled Spirits (UC Press, 2012) and The Harvard Psychedelic Club (HarperCollins 2010).
Sean Lawlor is a freelance writer, personal trainer, and graduate student in Transpersonal Counseling in Boulder, CO. His interest in psychedelics owes great debt to Aldous Huxley, Ken Kesey, and Hunter S. Thompson, and his passion for dreaming draws ongoing inspiration from Carl Jung and J.K. Rowling.
Noah Potter is a New York City-based attorney. He began organizing for psychedelic law reform advocacy in the early 1990s. He founded the New Amsterdam Psychedelic Law blog in 2010 in order to establish the field of “psychedelic law” as a unique topic for legal analysis.
Don Shewey is a writer, therapist, and pleasure activist in New York City. As a journalist and critic, he has published three books about theater and written hundreds of articles for the New York Times, the Village Voice, Esquire, Rolling Stone, and other publications. He has chronicled his psycho-sexual-spiritual adventures in essays that have been included in numerous anthologies, including The Politics of Manhood and The Queerest Art: Essays on Lesbian and Gay Theater. His most recent book is The Paradox of Porn: Notes on Gay Male Sexual Culture. An archive of his writing is available online at donshewey.com. His psychotherapy practice (bodyandsoulwork.com) specializes in sex and intimacy coaching, and he completed training at CIIS in psychedelics-assisted psychotherapy in 2018.
Zach Haigney is a freelance Science and Business writer. He is the author and founder of The Trip Report a newsletter offering insight, news, and analysis at the intersection of business, policy, and psychedelics. Zach is drawn to the emerging psychedelic ecosystem because restoring psychedelic experience into the culture is a watershed moment in human history. The Trip Report keeps readers informed by analyzing the news within the context of the larger themes, forces and history of psychedelic science, culture and practice.
Chris Pezza attended 9 burns consecutively beginning in 2007 and served as a Black Rock Ranger for 7 years. He’s the co-founder of Camp Soft Landing, where he hosted Palenque Norte, a psychedelic lecture series that provides content for the Psychedelic Salon podcast established by Lorenzo Haggerty in 2003. Together with Mischa Steiner and Lucid News editor Ann Harrison, Pezza is a co-founder of the event production company Take 3 Presents. He is a DJ who brings tech house, melodic techno, tribalish, synth wave, ambient, and live grooves.
Ido Hartogsohn is a scholar, artist, and activist in the field of psychedelics. His work explores the role of collective set and setting in shaping psychedelic experiences for human cultures. His book, American Trip: Set, Setting and the Psychedelic Experience in the 20th Century, appeared with MIT Press earlier this year.
Sarah Ratliff is a corporate America escapee turned eco-organic farmer, writer and published book author.
Erica Zelfand, ND is a licensed family physician, writer, and speaker specializing in integrative and functional medicine. She enjoys training healthcare providers in the clinical applications of psychedelic medicine, wearing big sunglasses, and eating second breakfast. To learn more and connect, please visit https://DrZelfand.com/Psychedelics
Ifetayo Harvey is the marketing coordinator at the Drug Policy Alliance (DPA) and founder of the People of Color Psychedelic Collective. She is a graduate of Smith College with a BA in History and African Studies, and has shared her experience of being personally impacted by the drug war. Ifetayo is currently a student of Somatic Sex Education. In her free time, she enjoys TV, fitness, crafts, and playing her euphonium or listening to music. Ifetayo Harvey is originally from Charleston, SC and currently lives in NYC.
Sam Woolfe is a freelance writer based in London. His main areas of interest include mental health, mystical experiences, the history of psychedelics, and the philosophy of psychedelics. He first became fascinated by psychedelics after reading Aldous Huxley's The Doors of Perception, which details the author's experience with mescaline. Since then, Sam has researched and written about psychedelics for various publications, covering the legality of psychedelics, drug policy reform, and psychedelic science.
Phillip Smith is a writing fellow and the editor and chief correspondent of Drug Reporter, a project of the Independent Media Institute. He has been a drug policy journalist for the past two decades. He is the longtime author of the Drug War Chronicle, the online publication of the non-profit StopTheDrugWar.org, and has been the editor of AlterNet’s Drug Reporter since 2015. He was awarded the Drug Policy Alliance’s Edwin M. Brecher Award for Excellence in Media in 2013.
Darius James is the author of Negrophobia and That's Blaxploitatiion: Roots of the Baadassssss 'Tude. He moved to Berlin, Germany in 1998 and worked as a radio host; theater director; and creative-writing coach. His experience as a talking head on German television led to his teaming with Oliver Hardt and tvt productions for the documentary The United States of Hoodoo. His collaboration with filmmaker Noel Lawrence, Sammy-Gate, premiered at the 2019 International Rotterdam Film Festival. Currently, he is in New Haven, Ct.
Robert Tindall is a storyteller, father, classical guitarist, and practitioner of Zen Buddhism and Amazonian vegetalismo whose work explores the crossing of frontiers into other cultures, time depths, and states of consciousness. He has written three books on shamanism and indigenous lifeways: The Jaguar that Roams the Mind, The Shamanic Odyssey: Homer, Tolkien, and the Visionary Experience, and Sacred Soil: Biochar and the Regeneration of the Earth, along with numerous articles on themes such as shamanic archaeology, healing of addiction, pilgrimage, the medieval quest, and the indigenous prophetic and healing traditions of the Americas. Robert works as a professor of literature and “consulting mythopoeiacist” (he’s proud to be pioneering this new profession!) and divides his time between the Amazon rain forest and the San Francisco Bay Area. He has just completed his first fantasy novel, inspired by the Brothers Grimm fairytale, “The White Snake.”
Jahan Khamsehzadeh, Ph.D. completed his dissertation on psychedelics in the Philosophy, Cosmology, and Consciousness program at the California Institute of Integral Studies in San Francisco. His book, “Psychedelic Revolution: Psilocybin Mushrooms, Human Evolution, and Psychotherapy”, is being published by North Atlantic Books and is set to be released Spring 2022. He earned his Masters in Consciousness and Transformative Studies from John F. Kennedy University, and his Bachelors from the University of Arizona with a major in Philosophy and minors in Physics, Psychology, and Mathematics. Aside from academic work, he has undergone several major trainings, including graduating from the Hakomi somatic-psychotherapy program and training within the Mazatec mushroom tradition. He assisted the Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy Certificate training at CIIS for two years, and mentors at the newly emerging School of Consciousness Medicine. He works as a facilitator for legal psilocybin mushrooms ceremonies in Jamaica with Atman Retreats, one of the few opportunities offered worldwide where people can legally experience psilocybin. Jahan is on the PsiloHealth integration team, a group of MDs and PsyDs in the process of creating psychedelic integration trainings, and volunteers at the Zendo Project, which provides psychedelic harm reduction. He serves as an advisor for PsyGaia and their project HowToTakePsychedelics.com and leads a monthly group called “Developing a Relationship with Sacred Mushrooms” with the San Francisco Psychedelic Society. You can learn more about him and contact him through his website www.PsychedelicEvolution.org.
Ahmed Kabil is an Egyptian-American writer and multimedia storyteller. He is the Editor of The Long Now Foundation, a nonprofit dedicated to fostering long-term thinking. He has written about psychedelic history and culture for Gen, Timeline, Integral Review, Michael Pollan’s “Trips Worth Telling” essay collection, and The Museum of Old and New Art’s surrealist cookbook, Eat the Problem. He is based in Barcelona.
Kelly Berry is a functional movement therapist and healthcare strategist based in Brooklyn, NY. She specializes in guiding individuals and groups towards greater integration of physical and emotional awareness utilizing yoga and core movements, breath integration and mindfulness. Formerly a Washington D.C. native, she was the lead curator and instructor for the yoga program at the U.S. State Department and yoga teacher for sports teams including the Washington Mystics. As a healthcare strategist and consultant, Kelly has held leadership roles for marketing and communications teams at public relations agencies, technology start-ups, and lifestyle brands. Most recently Kelly served as marketing and communications director at Forth Road Health, a consulting agency supporting the development of psychedelic assisted therapy. She holds a B.A. in English from The College of William & Mary and over 1,000 hours training in various movement disciplines including bodywork, Pilates, kinesiology, anatomy, alchemy, and Reiki.
Adam Rubin is a psychedelic harm reduction activist and crisis counselor. He has devoted his life to supporting others experiencing extreme states of consciousness and creating safety systems at events where people might choose to ingest a psychedelic substance. He has worked at over 45 events around the world since 2015 with many organizations including the Zendo Project, White Bird, RGX Medical, and Take 3 Presents. He trains peer support volunteers, local psychedelic communities, and event medical teams. Adam is the author of a series of free zines titled “The It’s Okay Psychedelic Harm Reduction Series.” Currently, Adam is the Director of Training for the Fireside Project, a psychedelic peer support hotline.
Igor Domsac has a degree in journalism, with an international specialization diploma, from the Antonio de Nebrija University, and a Postgraduate Diploma in “Journalism I: Analysis of the Informative Message” from the Complutense University of Madrid. He has worked for several media outlets, including the EFE agency, Diario 16 and the AFP in Paris. Igor was director of the magazine Enteogenia and the blog tuCriptomoneda, and has contributed as author, proof reader and translator in numerous books and publications on psychoactive substances, for example Colección Interzona and the translation into Spanish of PIHKAL and TIHKAL by Alexander and Ann Shulgin. He was coordinator of interventions in the Madrid delegation of Energy Control, participated in several editions of Kosmicare (a project by the Boom Festival) as a facilitator of difficult experiences with psychedelics, and contributed to magazines such as Heavy Rock, Kerrang!, Interzona, Cáñamo, Generación XXI, Ulises, Infocannabis, ÁGORA or Cannabis Magazine, in addition to founding and leading Alter Consciens, an association dedicated to performing arts and technologies of consciousness. He currently works as a communication assistant at ICEERS and dedicates his free time to his two children, writing, storytelling, and participation in various projects related to Bitcoin (BSV) and blockchain technology.
Seth Warner is the communications director of the San Francisco Psychedelic Society since helping to reboot the organization in early 2018. Today he helps to create one of the most vibrant and active online communities of psychedelic integration and support in this time of crisis. Additionally he teaches about the cultivation of psilocybin containing mushrooms with a personal project, MycoRising.
Hadas is a Founding Partner at Plant Medicine Law Group, a boutique law firm serving the psychedelic and cannabis space. She advises companies on matters of regulatory compliance, policy advocacy, risk management, strategic planning, corporate governance, licensing, and dispute resolution. She served as counsel to some of the first equity applicants in Oakland, California; and currently works with legacy cannabis cultivators in the Emerald Triangle on strategies for conveying their policy goals to state regulators. She is the co-founder of Decriminalize Nature NYC, Campaign Director of New Yorkers for Mental Health Alternatives and a Board Member of the Psychedelic Bar Association. She also sits on the Advisory Board of the Brooklyn Psychedelic Society.
Rachel (she/her) serves as the Communications & Programs Coordinator for DanceSafe, a nightlife harm reduction nonprofit known for its drug education and drug checking kits. In addition to working for DanceSafe, Rachel has been teaching a semester-long course called DrugsCo for several years, and founded the Oberlin Students for Sensible Drug Policy chapter in 2019. She has been an avid harm reductionist since 2012, and enjoys long walks to her soapbox to talk about psychedelic safety and the injustices of the drug war.
Kristi is a freelance writer specializing in cannabis, health, and psychedelics. Her work can be found in the New York Times, Washington Post, Men's Health, and many other publications. She lives in the American southeast with her husband, children, and numerous pets.
Mitchell Gomez is a graduate of New College of Florida (whose Alumni included the founders of Erowid, MAPS and the Zendo Project), and has his Masters from CU Denver. He has been a part of the electronic music community since the late 90’s, when he first started attending underground breaks shows while still in high-school. In 1999 while living in Israel, he became one of the earliest full time professional fire spinners, eventually performing at some of the biggest electronic music events on four continents. Mitchell joined Dancesafe as their National Outreach Director in 2014 and was responsible for all volunteer coordination, the development, implementation, and evaluation of new training curriculum and outreach initiatives, and administrative tasks, and was promoted to Executive Director in 2017. He has volunteered with the Burning Man organization, SSDP, the Denver Drug Strategy Commision, Psymposia, and other small harm reduction projects for many years, and is a passionate advocate for reality-based drug policy and harm reduction.
Krista Diamond is a Las Vegas based writer whose work has appeared in The New York Times, HuffPost, Business Insider, Thrillist, Eater, and elsewhere.
Colin Newton is a writer from Los Angeles who is interested covering in psychology and wellness, traditional medicine, consciousness expansion, religious experience, and futurism. He has a bachelor’s degree in journalism/religious studies from California State University, Northridge. His work has appeared in The Ignatian Literary Magazine, Westwind, The Argonaut and The Abstract Elephant Magazine. In 2018, he was an artist-in-residence at Oregon State University’s Shotpouch Cabin. He blogs about monsters, media and metaphysics at IdolsAndRealities.wordpress.com.
Mitch Mignano is a writer, researcher, editor and workshop organizer who splits his time between Santa Fe and New York City. After finishing graduate school, Mitch teamed-up with psychedelic author Daniel Pinchbeck to begin working with the Evolver social network, Reality Sandwich online magazine and North Atlantic Books. Through this activity, he came in contact with John Allen (inventor of Biosphere 2) and Deborah Snyder, discovering a deep calling to work with John and his ecotechnic ideas, Mitch brings a myriad of professional connections, as well as an experiential and interdisciplinary knowledge set to the Synergetic team.
Sophia is a freelance journalist covering subjects such as technology, healthcare, lifestyle and social affairs for international publications. Her byline has appeared in outlets such as Newsweek, Forbes.com, Wired UK, New Scientist and many more. Sophia has been writing for 16 years and completed her undergraduate degree in Journalism (BJTC) at the University for the Creative Arts. She is based in Yorkshire, England, and lives with her son and dog.
Sara Brittany Somerset (she/hers) is a United Nations-based cannabis correspondent and global drug policy analyst. Her work is syndicated worldwide, and appears in various media outlets from Forbes to Innovation and Tech Today. Sara Brittany launched the first cannabis news desk at the U.N. in 2011, and is the former U.N. Bureau Chief for High Times. As a foreign correspondent, she covered an exclusive expose on the cannabis trade during the blood diamond wars in Sierra Leone. In 2021 she ranked one of the Top 10 Cannabis Journalists by Muckrack. In 2020, she was listed on Green Market Report's 100 Most Important Women In Weed. In 2018, Sara Brittany received an AxisWire Star Media Award for Best Freelance Cannabis Writer
Annelise Kelly had no idea that her first Grateful Dead show (Ventura County Fairgrounds, CA 1984) would lure her On the Bus. Today she writes mostly about food and travel, recognizing that the interior journey is the only one that really matters. She lives in Portland, Oregon.
David E. Carpenter contributes to Forbes on the topic of breakthroughs and trends in the field of psychoactive substances. He is the creator of the ongoing booklet series Your Neighbors Are Doing Psychedelics, which features stories of healing through psychoactive drugs. He's the author of MDMA: From The Club To The Clinic. His forthcoming work on the topic of 5-MeO-DMT, Toad, is due out this year.
David Arnson reviews for Lucid News, Erowid.org and Music Connection Magazine. An urban shaman, he fronts 'Insect Surfers' (Planet Earth's Longest-Running Modern Surf Band") and raises cacti, succulents, and carnivorous plants.
Lisa Newcomb is a journalist, editor and political communications professional. She has covered national and state-level politics for independent media including Common Dreams and Sludge. Lisa has directed communications efforts for progressive statewide campaigns in California, Idaho and Maine, and she has worked as a communications consultant focused on media relations and strategic communications for U.S. House and U.S. Senate campaigns across the United States. Lisa is interested in the intersection of social movements and electoral reforms as well as healthcare, citizen participation in the democratic process and the essential role of the free press in holding power to account.
Allan Steiner is a Drug Policy reform advocate living in Oakland California. From 2016-2019, Allan worked as a cannabis consultant helping entrepreneurs navigate the complexities of cannabis law and was an early supporter of the Decriminalize Nature Oakland resolution.
David Jay Brown is the author of Dreaming Wide Awake, The New Science of Psychedelics, and 14 other books about the evolution of consciousness. To find out more see: www.davidjaybrown.com
Jon Kelvey is a science writer based in Maryland. He’s covered health and neuropharmacology since 2013, with his work appearing in the Baltimore Sun, Cancer Today, Slate and Smithsonian, among other publications. He holds a bachelor’s in Cognitive Science from UC Berkeley, where his studies placed a special emphasis on the neuropharmacology of psychedelics.
Psychedelic Safety Alliance co-founder Ally Lee is a clinical social worker of 12 years who works closely with both the street and festival drug user communities. Formerly the head of a chapter of Students For Sensible Drug Policy, Ally also works as a first responder and harm reduction educator at Burning Man and other large events. Her subfields of interest include mental health crisis intervention, overdose reversal, and translating academic literature into tactical safety protocols.